Ruth Hubbard on how the social influences the physical

“If a society puts half its children into short skirts and warns them not to move in ways that reveal their panties, while putting the other half into jeans and overalls and encouraging them to climb trees, play ball, and participate in other vigorous outdoor games; if later, during adolescence, the children who have been … More Ruth Hubbard on how the social influences the physical

going beyond gender as a way of organising sports

In 2009, there was a public outcry when star athlete Caster Semenya was forced to undergo gender verification testing to prove she was female. Academics Cooky and Dworkin argue that gender verification tests are motivated by sexist, outdated ideas about the need to separate male and female athletes. They question whether it is necessary to segregate athletes by gender. They … More going beyond gender as a way of organising sports

Do ‘intersex’ athletes compete as women or men?

The institution of sport has traditionally been organised around two genders: male and female. However, gender is not quite a fixed dichotomy between male and female. Cooky and Dworkin examine intersex individuals in their paper, “Policing the Boundaries of Sex”. They argue that intersex athletes have faced difficulties when participating in sports competitions that operate on … More Do ‘intersex’ athletes compete as women or men?

athletes and the gender binary

“Women began participating in Olympic competitions in 1900. Given emerging fears that some athletes in women’s competitions were too ‘‘masculine’’ to be female, international sports governing bodies implemented procedures to ensure that all participants were indeed female.” Cheryl Cooky and Shari L. Dworkin examine the history of gender verification in sports.