Feminist ideas and powerful women have been around for centuries. However, why did feminism as a global movement only emerge at this point in history? Constance Singam weighs in.
“To discuss feminist theory, you first need to be able to visualize a roadmap of what the fuck feminism is.” Carmen takes us on a crash course on First, Second, Third- and now Fourth-wave feminism. For Autostraddle.
Constance Singam takes us on a trip through history, as she explains First Wave Feminism (late 1800s to early 1900s) and Second Wave Feminism (1960s to 1980s), not just in the West but also its manifestations in Asia.
The Singapore Council of Women, formed in 1952, was the first women’s organisation to explicitly critique the state of gender relations. In particular, they spoke out against polygamy, leading to the practice being outlawed for non-Muslims in 1961.
In “Perempuan”, a collection of 31 stories from young Muslim women in Singapore, Joyene Nazatul talks about being lesbian, Malay, and the target of rape jokes.
In 2009, there was a public outcry when star athlete Caster Semenya was forced to undergo gender verification testing to prove she was female. Academics Cooky and Dworkin argue that gender verification tests are motivated by sexist, outdated ideas about the need to separate male and female athletes. They question whether it is necessary to segregate athletes by gender. They … More going beyond gender as a way of organising sports
The institution of sport has traditionally been organised around two genders: male and female. However, gender is not quite a fixed dichotomy between male and female. Cooky and Dworkin examine intersex individuals in their paper, “Policing the Boundaries of Sex”. They argue that intersex athletes have faced difficulties when participating in sports competitions that operate on … More Do ‘intersex’ athletes compete as women or men?